More T-Rex Cousins

Two new species of predatory megaraptoran dinosaurs have been identified from fossils found in Thailand. The two new species, named Phuwiangvenator yaemniyomi and Vayuraptor nongbualamphuensis, roamed the Earth approximately 125 million years ago (Cretaceous period). The fossilized remains were found in the Sao Khua Formation of Thailand.

Both creatures belong to Megaraptora (megaraptors), a group of medium-to-large-sized theropod dinosaurs. The relatives of this group of predatory dinosaurs include Tyrannosaurus Rex. Like T-Rex, they ran on their hind legs, but the tyrant lizard, their arms were strong and armed with long claws. They also had more delicate heads that ended in a long snout.

Phuwiangvenator yaemniyomi was likely a fast runner. At about 20 feet (6 m) long, this dinosaur was considerably smaller than T-Rex which was approximately 40 feet (12 m) in length. Vayuraptor nongbualamphuenisis measured approximately 15 feet (4.5 m) long.

Scientists have compared the Thai fossils with other megaraptors discovered in South America and Australia. Various characteristics of Phuwiangvenator yaemniyomi indicate that it is an early representative of the group. This is an indication that the megaraptors originated in Southeast Asia and then spread to other regions.

The study was published in the journal Acta Palaeontologica Polonica.

New Neighbors

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Astronomers using NASA’s Transiting Exoplanets Survey Satellite (TESS) have discovered a compact three-planet system around the star HR 858. The newly-discovered planets orbit HR 858, a slightly-evolved F-type star, which is also a member of a visual binary system. The star lies in the constellation of Fornax, approximately 104.4 light-years from Earth. It has a radius 30% larger than the Sun, and a temperature of about 10,700 degrees Fahrenheit (5,928 degrees Celsius).

Named HR 858b, c and d, the new planets are all about twice the size of Earth and have periods of 3.6, 6 and 11.2 days, respectively. This compact and near-resonant architecture harkens back to the systems of tightly packed inner planets discovered by Kepler, but HR 858 is hundreds to thousands of times brighter than the hosts of those Kepler systems.

According to the team, HR 858 is one of the brightest stars known to host transiting exoplanets, trailing only HD 219134, pi Mensae, and 55 Cancri.

Pre-launch estimates of the TESS planet yield predicted a handful of planet discoveries around naked-eye stars, and so far only HR 858 and pi Mensae have fit this description. HR 858 will likely retain its privileged position as one of the brightest transit hosts in the sky and most favorable systems for detailed study.

paper detailing the discovery will be published in a journal of the American Astronomical Society (AAS).

Ice, Ice, Baby

 

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Planetary researchers using data from the Shallow Radar (SHARAD) instrument on NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have discovered rich deposits of water ice and sand hundreds of million years old beneath the current ice cap in the north polar region of the Red Planet. Published journal Geophysical Research Letters, the findings are important because the layers of ice are a record of past Martian climate in much the same way that tree rings are a record of past climate on Earth.

Scientists found layers of sand and ice that were as much as 90% water in some places. If melted, the newly-discovered ice would be equivalent to a global layer of water around Mars at least 5 feet (1.5 m) deep, which could be one of the largest water reservoirs on the planet.

The scientists suspect the layers formed when ice accumulated at the poles during past ice ages on Mars. Each time the planet warmed, a remnant of the ice caps became covered by sand, which protected the ice from solar radiation and prevented it from dissipating into the atmosphere.

Until now, scientists thought the ancient ice caps were lost. The new findings show that in fact significant ice sheet remnants have survived under the planet’s surface, trapped in alternating bands of ice and sand, like layers on a cake.

The total volume of water locked up in the buried polar deposits is roughly the same as all the water ice known to exist in glaciers and buried ice layers at lower latitudes on Mars, and they are approximately the same age.

The team’s findings were corroborated by an independent study using gravity data instead of radar, led by Johns Hopkins University’s Dr. Lujendra Ojha and also published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.

Twitter isn’t Real Life

In 1985, media critic Neil Postman wrote, “Amusing Ourselves to Death,” in which he argued that the ascendancy of television was destroying public discourse in America. The primary support for this claim was that television is so structurally biased toward entertainment, triviality, and spectacle that it is incapable of fostering serious, sustained, and rational deliberation.

It seems in 2019 that an equally seismic cultural shift occurring, one that is moving us even further away from healthy public dialogue.

Just as the Age of Typography gave way to the Age of Television, the Age of Television is now giving way to the Age of Twitter. Nowhere is this shift more evident than in Donald Trump’s obsessive use of the platform. But Lord Dampnut is far from alone, as the popularity of congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez’s Twitter feed suggests. Given Twitter’s growing centrality in our politics, it seems prudent to highlight the defining traits of this platform and the dangers it poses.

Twitter is defined by three main characteristics: simplicity, impulsivity, and incivility. Thanks to its 280-character limitation, Twitter structurally disallows communication that is sophisticated and complex. While people can say things that are smart and witty on Twitter, they cannot convey complex ideas.

This is significant because the issues and concerns confronting us today, from climate change and healthcare to terrorism and immigration, are exceedingly complex, and talking about them 280 characters at a time ensures that we will never develop workable solutions. You cannot fix a problem that you do not actually understand.

Also, Twitter does not invite serious contemplation and thoughtful consideration. Generally speaking, people do not spend hours carefully crafting 280-character messages. They fire them off in the “heat” in the moment. This is due to the structural properties of the platform, whose simplicity of use invites impulsivity. People can tweet from virtually anywhere at any time. Tweets are, well, tweeted usually with no forethought and reflection. As such, Twitter frequently contributes to misunderstanding and escalates sensitive situations.

While there are positive and civil messages on Twitter, research concerning the platform points to three interrelated findings that privilege incivility.

First, Twitter usage is positively correlated to the personality traits of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy.

Second, people are more likely to communicate in uncivil ways when the target of their message is not immediately present.

Third, negatively-toned messages travel both farther and faster on Twitter. Consequently, while it is certainly possible to be civil on Twitter, the medium is biased toward incivility. So, is it any wonder that our politics have become so divisive and mean-spirited?

These traits ensure that we are not having thoughtful and civil conversations on Twitter. To be clear, I am not anti-Twitter. The structural biases of any medium make it ill-suited for some types of communication and well suited for others. For example, Twitter may be the most effective emergency alert system ever created. It is ideal for conveying simple messages quickly and widely. But it is exceptionally ineffective at fostering meaningful and mature public deliberation.

Choosing the right tool is essential to successfully performing any task. You would not use a screwdriver to dig a ditch, and you should not use Twitter to conduct national and international politics.

Other social media platforms, like Facebook and Instagram, do not serve us much better. They overwhelmingly expose us to information we already agree with, leading to confirmation bias. Much of the information they spread is unreliable (and even propagandistic). Also, social media are designed to elicit emotional rather than rational responses from us.

As we enter the 2020 campaign season in earnest, it’s important that we look outside social media for our news and information. We should actively seek out serious and sustained discussions of public issues, and we should remember social media was never designed to inform us or conduct our politics.