Rise and Fall…On Mars

In April 2019, NASA’s InSight lander used its Instrument Deployment Camera (IDC) to capture a series of Martian sunrise and sunset images.

NASA’s InSight lander used its IDC camera to record the Martian sunrise on April 24, 2019. This image was taken around 5:30 a.m. Mars local time. Image credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech.

The first mission to send back such images was NASA’s Viking 1 lander, which captured a sunset on August 21, 1976. NASA’s Viking 2 then captured a sunrise on June 14, 1978. Since then, both sunrises and sunsets have been recorded by NASA’s Spirit, Opportunity and Curiosity rovers.

InSight’s IDC camera on the lander’s robotic arm snapped these photos on April 24 and 25, 2019, the 145th Martian day (sol) of the mission. In local Mars time, the shots were taken starting around 5:30 a.m. and then again starting around 6:30 p.m.

Much farther from Mars than it is from Earth, the Sun appears only about two-thirds the size that it does when viewed from Earth.

InSight used its IDC camera to image this sunset on Mars on April 25, 2019. This image was taken around 6:30 p.m. Mars local time. Image credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech.

Marsquakes

NASA’s robotic probe InSight detected and measured what scientists believe to be a “marsquake,” marking the first time a seismological tremor has been recorded on another planet, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California reported on Tuesday.

The breakthrough came nearly five months after InSight, the first spacecraft designed specifically to study the interior of a distant world, touched down on the surface of Mars to begin its two-year seismological mission on the red planet.

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The faint rumble was roughly equal to a 2.5 magnitude earthquake, was recorded on April 6, the lander’s 128th Martian day, or sol.

It was detected by InSight’s French-built seismometer, an instrument sensitive enough to measure a seismic wave just one-half the radius of a hydrogen atom.

Scientists are still examining the data to conclusively determine the precise cause of the signal, but the trembling appeared to have originated from inside the planet, as opposed to being caused by forces above the surface, such as wind.

The size and duration of the marsquake also fit the profile of some of the thousands of moonquakes detected on the lunar surface between 1969 and 1977 by seismometers installed there by NASA’s Apollo missions.

The lunar and Martian surfaces are extremely quiet compared with Earth’s, which experiences constant low-level seismic noise from oceans and weather as well as quakes that occur along subterranean fault lines created by shifting tectonic plates in the planet’s crust.

Tremors on Mars

Since NASA’s InSight lander, um landed on Mars at the end of last year, the plucky surface probe has spent months getting carefully situated so that its special seismometer could listen for “marsquakes” a neologism for earthquakes that occur on Mars, rather than Earth, as you probably guessed.

Observations of marsquakes will help determine just what’s going on inside of Mars, and to what extent it is still a geologically active world. We know Mars was very geologically active in the past; it has the tallest mountain of any planet in the solar system.

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While InSight hasn’t heard mars-shaking marsquakes yet, Scientists have revealed that the lander’s instrument has detected a different kind of rumbling known as microseisms. They are the first of their kind to be detected on another planet.

The new noises are caused by low-frequency pressure waves from atmospheric winds. On Earth, microseisms are caused by the ocean, storms and tides. Researchers working on InSight hope to hear a real marsquake within one month.

InSight’s other instruments have been providing scientists with troves of data. Indeed, since mid-February, InSight has issuing weather reports from Mars.

Ultimately, InSight’s science will help contribute to an overall picture of the history of the solar system, and how Mars, Earth and the other planets formed and evolved. The Auxiliary Payload Subsystem (APSS) lets InSight provide more frequent weather information than any previous mission to Mars.

InSight’s science will help contribute to an overall picture of the history of the solar system, and how Mars, Earth, and the other planets formed and evolved.